Current Projects


PHAROS, Sotera Wireless, Inc. (San Diego, CA): Pilot Study of Impact of Continuous Wireless Multi-Parameter Vital Sign Monitoring Upon Quality of Care


Sotera Wireless has partnered with SICR to develop the PHAROS Network as an ongoing public health surveillance and quality improvement program that is focused on enabling clinicians to provide safe, effective and efficient care by using wireless vital sign monitors (WVSM). Sotera manufactures and markets the ViSi Mobile® System, which is the only FDA-approved medical device capable of continuous non-invasive WVSM including heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and pulse oximetry, with wireless transmission of data and alerts.


CAM Study


The purpose of this research is to confirm the clinical value of a new P-wave sensitive recording vector combined with an easy-to-use long-term cardiac rhythm monitoring patch system, the CarnationTM Ambulatory Monitoring (CAM) System. The P-wave is a critical aspect of the electrocardiogram and a key finding for proper arrhythmia diagnosis. The CAM system is optimized for both ease of use and for maximum P-wave clarity for arrhythmia diagnosis.




The Catheter ABlation versus ANtiarrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (CABANA) trial compares drug therapy with catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation to determine which treatment approach is best and if under certain circumstances, one therapy is preferred over the other treatment. CABANA also compares the cost of care for the two treatment approaches and will determine the effect these therapies have on quality of life.

Landmark Publications


Madathil RJ, Hira RS, Stoeckl M, Sterz F, Elrod JB, Nichol G. Ischemia reperfusion injury as a modifiable therapeutic target for cardioprotection or neuroprotection in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2016 Apr 27;105:85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.04.009. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID: 27131843


Wang HE, Prince DK, Stephens SW, Herren H, Daya M, Richmond N, Carlson J, Warden C, Colella MR, Brienza A, Aufderheide TP, Idris AH, Schmicker R, May S, Nichol G.  Design and implementation of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Pragmatic Airway Resuscitation Trial (PART). Resuscitation. 2016 Apr;101:57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.01.012. Epub 2016 Feb 2. PMID:26851059


Beck B, Bray J, Smith K, Walker T, Grantham H, Hein C, Thorrowgood M, Smith A, Smith T, Dicker B, Swain A, Bailey M, Bosley E, Pemberton K, Cameron P, Nichol G, Finn J; Aus-ROC Steering Committee. Establishing the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand out-of-hospital cardiac arrest Epistry. BMJ Open. 2016 Apr 5;6(4):e011027. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011027. PMID:27048638


Nichol G, Wang H, Schmicker RH. Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 24;374(12):1196-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1600144. PMID:27007963


Bardy GH, Olshansky B. Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 24;374(12):1196. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1600144#SA6. No abstract available. PMID:27007969


Willcox ME, Prutkin JM, Bardy GH. Recent developments in the subcutaneous ICD. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2016 Mar 15. pii: S1050-1738(16)00080-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2016.03.004. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PMID:27079889


Lyden PD, Lopez-de-Sa E, Nichol G, Kiragu AW. Current Advances in the Use of Therapeutic Hypothermia. Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016 Mar;6(1):2-5. doi: 10.1089/ther.2016.29010.pdl. Epub 2016 Feb 1. PMID:26829471


Griffis HM, Band RA, Ruther M, Harhay M, Asch DA, Hershey JC, Hill S, Nadkarni L, Kilaru A, Branas CC, Shofer F, Nichol G, Becker LB, Merchant RM. Employment and residential characteristics in relation to automated external defibrillator locations.

Am Heart J. 2016 Feb;172:185-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.09.022. Epub 2015 Oct 28. PMID:26856232


Writing Group Members, Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, Das SR, de Ferranti S, Després JP, Fullerton HJ, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Isasi CR, Jiménez MC, Judd SE, Kissela BM, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Liu S, Mackey RH, Magid DJ, McGuire DK, Mohler ER 3rd, Moy CS, Muntner P, Mussolino ME, Nasir K, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Palaniappan L, Pandey DK, Reeves MJ, Rodriguez CJ, Rosamond W, Sorlie PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS, Woo D, Yeh RW, Turner MB; American Heart Association Statistics Committee; Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Executive Summary: Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics--2016 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Jan 26;133(4):447-54. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000366. PMID:26811276


Au-Yeung WT, Reinhall PG, Poole JE, Anderson J, Johnson G, Fletcher RD, Moore HJ, Mark DB, Lee KL, Bardy GH. SCD-HeFT: Use of R-R interval statistics for long-term risk stratification for arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Oct;12(10):2058-66. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.06.030. Epub 2015 Jun 19. Erratum in: Heart Rhythm. 2015 Dec;12(12):2520. PMID:26096609


Brown SP, Wang H, Aufderheide TP, Vaillancourt C, Schmicker RH, Cheskes S, Straight R, Kudenchuk P, Morrison L, Colella MR, Condle J, Gamez G, Hostler D, Kayea T, Ragsdale S, Stephens S, Nichol G; ROC Investigators. A randomized trial of continuous versus interrupted chest compressions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale for and design of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium ContinuousChest Compressions Trial. Am Heart J. 2015 Mar;169(3):334-341.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.11.011. Epub 2014 Nov 20. PMID: 25728722




Capucci A, Aschieri D, Guerra F, Pelizzoni V, Nani S, Villani GQ, Bardy GH. Community-based AED only resuscitation for Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest victims. Am Heart J 2016;172:192–200.


Hess PL, Al-Khatib SM, Han JY, Edwards R, Bardy GH, Bigger JT, Buxton A, Cappato R, Dorian P, Hallstrom A, Kadish AH, Kudenchuk PJ, Lee KL, Mark DB, Moss AJ, Steinman R, Inoue LYT, Sanders GD. Survival Benefit of the Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Among Older Patients: Does Age Matter? An Analysis of Pooled Data From 5 Clinical Trials. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2015; 8: 179-186.


Al-Khatib SM, Hellkamp A, Bardy GH, Hammill S, Hall WJ, Mark DB, Anstrom KJ, Curtis J, Al-Khalidi H, Curtis LH, Heidenreich P, Peterson ED, Sanders G, Clapp-Channing N, Lee KL, Moss AJ. Survival of Patients Receiving a Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Clinical Practice vs Clinical Trials. JAMA 2013;309:55-62.


Bardy GH. A critic’s assessment of our approach to cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 2011;364:374-375.

Bardy GH, Smith WM, Hood MA, Crozier IG, Melton IC, Jordaens L, Theuns D, Park RE, Wright DJ, Connelly DT, Fynn SP, Murgatroyd FD, Sperzel J, Neuzner J, Spitzer SG, Ardashev AV, Oduro A, Boersma L, Maass AH, Van Gelder IC, Wilde AA, van Dessel PF, Knops RE, Barr CS, Lupo P, Cappato R and Grace AA. An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator. N Engl J Med 2010;363:36-44.


Packer DL, Prutkin JM, Hellkamp AS, Mitchell LB, Bernstein RC, Wood F, Boehmer JP, Carlson MD, Frantz RP, McNulty SE, Rogers JG, Anderson J, Walsh MN, Poole JE, Mark DB, Lee KL, Bardy GH. ICD, Amiodarone, and Placebo on the Mode of Death in Stable Patients with Heart Failure: Analysis from SCD-HeFT. Circulation 2009;120:2170-2176.


Poole JE, Johnson GW, Hellkamp AS, Anderson J, Callans DJ, Raitt MH, Reddy RK, Marchlinski FE, Yee R, Guarnieri T, Talajic M, Wilber DJ, Fishbein DP, Packer DL, Mark DB, Lee KL and Bardy GH, for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. Prognostic Importance of Defibrillator Shocks in Patients with Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 2008;359:999-1008.


Mark DB, Anstrom KJ, Sun JL, Clapp-Channing NE, Tsiatis AA, Davidson-Ray L, Lee KL, and Bardy GH for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. Quality of Life Outcomes with Defibrillator Therapy or Amiodarone in Chronic Stable Heart Failure: Results from the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). N Engl J Med 2008;359:1009-1017.


Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, Poole JE, Toff WD, Tonkin AM, Smith WB, Paul Dorian, Julie J. Yallop, Douglas L. Packer, Roger D. White, Will Longstreth, Jill Anderson, George Johnson, Eric Bischoff, Steven McNulty, Linda Davidson Ray, Nancy E. Clapp-Channing, Yves Rosenberg, and Eleanor B. Schron for the HAT Investigators. Home Use of Automated External Defibrillators for Sudden Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1793-1804.


Blatt JA, Poole JE, Johnson GW, Callans DJ, Raitt MH, Reddy RK, Marchlinski FE, Yee R, Guarnieri T, Talajic M, Wilber DJ, Anderson J, Chung K, Wong WS, Mark DB, Lee KL, and Bardy GH for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. No Benefit From DFT Testing in the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:551-556.


Russo A, Poole JE, Mark DB, Anderson J, Hellkamp AS, Lee KL, Johnson GW, Boineau R, Domanski M, Bardy GH for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. Primary Prevention with Defibrillator Theray in Women: Results from the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2008;19(7):720-724.


Dickinson MG, Ip JH, Olshansky B, Hellkamp AS, Anderson J, Poole JE, Mark DB, Lee KL, Bardy GH, for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. Statin use was associated with reduced mortality in both ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy and in patients with implantable defibrillators: Mortality data and mechanistic insights from the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). Am Heart J 153:573-578;2007.


Cappato R, Curnis A, Marzollo P, Mascioli G, Bordonali T, Beretti S, Scalfi F, Bontempi L, Carolei A, Bardy G, de Ambroggi L, dei Cas L. Prospective assessment of integrating the existing emergency medical system with automated external defibrillators fully operated by volunteers and laypersons for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the Brescia Early Defibrillation Study (BEDS). Eur. H. J. 27: 553-561; 2006.


Mark DB, Nelson CL, Anstrom KJ, Al-Khatib SM, Tsiatis AA, Cowper PA, Clapp-Channing NE, Davidson-Ray L, Poole JE, Lee KL, and Bardy GH for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. Cost effectiveness of defibrillator therapy or amiodarone in chronic stable heart failure: results from the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). Circulation 114:135-142; 2006.


Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, Poole JE, Packer DL, Boineau R, Domanski M, Troutman CL, Anderson J, Johnson GW, McNulty SE, Clapp-Channing N, Davidson-Ray L, Fraulo ES, Fishbein DP, Luceri RM, Ip JH for the SCD-HeFT Investigators. Amiodarone or an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator for Congestive Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 352:225-237; 2005.


Capucci A, Aschiera D, Piepoli M, Bardy GH, Iconomu E, Arvedi M. Tripling survival from sudden cardiac arrest via early defibrillation without traditional education in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 106;1065-1070, 2002.


Sotoodehnia N, Zivin A, Bardy GH, Siscovick DS. Reducing Mortality from Sudden Cardiac Death in the Community: Lessons from Epidemiology and Clinical Applications Research. Cardiovascular Research 50: 197-209; 2001.


Kern KB, Bardy GH, Buckman RF. Minimally Invasive direct cardiac massage in the field. Australian Journal of Emergency Care, 2000; 7:15-21.


Maron BJ, Shen WK, Link MS, Epstein AE, Almquist AK, Stanton MS, Daubert JP, Bardy GH, Rea RF, Caey SA, Favale S, Boriani G, Betocchi S, Estes NAM, Spirito P. Efficacy of the Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator for the Prevention of Sudden Death in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2000;342:365-373.


Bardy GH, Marchlinski FE, Sharma AD, Worley SJ, Luceri RM, Yee R, Halperin BD, Fellows CL, Ahern TS, Chilson DA, Packer DL, Wilber DJ, Mattioni TA, Reddy R, Kronmal RA, Lazzara R, for the Investigators: Multicenter comparison of truncated biphasic shocks and standard damped sine wave monophasic shocks for transthoracic ventricular defibrillation. Circulation 94:2507-2514, 1996.


Bardy GH, Gliner BE, Kudenchuk PJ, Poole JE, Dolack GL, Jones GK, Anderson J, Troutman C, Johnson G: Truncated biphasic pulses for transthoracic defibrillation. Circulation 91(6):1768-1774, 1995.


Bardy GH, Zaghi H, Gartman D, Poole JE, Kudenchuk PJ, Dolack GL, Johnson G, Troutman C. A prospective randomized comparison of defibrillation efficacy in man of truncated pulses and damped sine wave pulses. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 5:725-730, 1994.


Bardy GH, Dolack GL, Kudenchuk PJ, Poole JE, Johnson G, Kelso D, Mitchell R, Mehra R, Hofer B: Prospective, randomized comparison in humans of a unipolar defibrillation system with that using an additional superior vena cava electrode. Circulation 89:1090-1093, 1994.


Bardy GH, Johnson G, Poole JE, Dolack GL, Kudenchuk PJ, Kelso D, Mitchell R, Hofer B: A simplified, single lead unipolar transvenous cardioverter-defibrillator. Circulation 88:543-547, 1993.


Bardy GH, Troutman C, Poole JE, Kudenchuk PJ, Dolack GL, Johnson G, Hofer B: Clinical experience with a tiered therapy multiprogrammable antiarrhythmia device. Circulation 85:1689-1698, 1992.


Bardy GH, Troutman C, Johnson G, Mehra R, Poole JE, Dolack GL, Kudenchuk, PJ, Gartman DM: Electrode influence on biphasic waveform defibrillation efficacy in humans. Circulation 84:665-671, 1991.


Bardy GH, Allen MD, Mehra R, Johnson G: An effective and adaptable transvenous defibrillation system using the coronary sinus in man. J Am Coll Cardiol 16:897-895;1990.


Bardy GH, Sawyer PL, Johnson GW, Reichenbach DD: Radiofrequency ablation: the effect of voltage and pulse duration on canine myocardium. Am J Physiology 258:H1899-H1905, 1990.


Bardy GH, Allen MD, Mehra R, Johnson G, Feldman S, Greene HL, Ivey TD: Transvenous defibrillation in humans via the coronary sinus. Circulation. 81:1252-1259, 1990.


Bardy GH, Sawyer PL, Johnson GW, Ivey TD, Reichenbach DD: Effect of voltage and charge of electrical ablation on canine myocardium. Am J Physiology 257:H1534-H1542, 1989.


Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Allen MD, Johnson G, Mehra R, Greene HL: A prospective, randomized evaluation of biphasic vs monophasic waveform pulses on defibrillation efficacy in humans. JACC 14:728-733, 1989.


Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Allen MD, Johnson G: A prospective, randomized evaluation of ventricular fibrillation duration on defibrillation thresholds in humans. JACC 13:1362-1366, 1989.


Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Allen MD, Johnson G, Greene HL: Evaluation of electrode polarity on defibrillation efficacy: Am J Cardiol 63:433-437, 1989.


Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Johnson G, Stewart RB, Greene HL: Prospective evaluation of initially ineffective defibrillation pulses on subsequent defibrillation success during ventricular fibrillation in survivors of cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 62:718-722, 1988.


Bardy GH, Coltorti F, Stewart RB, Greene HL, Ivey TD: Catheter mediated electrical ablation: The relation between current and pulse width on voltage breakdown and shock wave generation. Circulation Research 63:409-414, 1988.


Bardy GH, Ivey TD, Coltorti F, Stewart RB, Johnson G, Greene HL: Developments, complication, limitations of catheter-mediated electrical ablation of posterior accessory atrioventricular pathways. Am J Cardiol 61:309-316, 1988.


Bardy GH, Coltorti F, Stewart RB, Greene HL, Ivey TD: Catheter mediated electrical ablation: The relation between current and pulse width on voltage breakdown and shock wave generation. PACE 9:1381-1383, 1986.


Bardy GH, German LD, Packer DL, Coltorti F, Gallagher JJ: Mechanism of tachycardia utilizing a nodofascicular Mahaim fiber. Am J Cardiol 54:1140-1141, 1984.


Bardy GH, German LD, Packer DL, Gallagher JJ: Preexcited reciprocating tachycardia in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: Incidence and mechanisms. Circulation 70:377-391, 1984.


Bardy GH, Ideker RE, Kasell J, Worley SJ, Smith WM, German LD, Gallagher JJ: Transvenous ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system in dogs: Electrophysiologic and histologic observations. Am J Cardiol 51:1775-1782, 1983.


Gallagher JJ, Svenson RH, Kasell JH, German LD, Bardy GH, Broughton A, Critelli G: Catheter technique for closed-chest ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system. N Engl J Med 306:194-200, 1982.